However, a specific electromobility shift product is detected with the R-loop 23GC52L (Fig 2, indicated by a triangle) that is incubated with the double stranded DNA in the same reaction setup. in different sequence variations exhibit either no binding, binding affinities in the micromolar range and as well high affinity binding in the nanomolar range. Our study questions the usefulness of the S9.6 antibody in the quantitative analysis of R-loop sequences in 1976 and about 20 years ago in prokaryotes using a mutation in the Topoisomerase I gene . R-loops were in the beginning considered as a by-product of transcription, but during the past decade very important functions of R-loops in transcription, genomic stability and a variety of diseases emerged . The persistence of R-loops can result in the accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) , leading to DNA rearrangements and genome instability [1,5]. R-loops occur naturally during transcription and serve for example in class switch recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes in activated B cells  and are functional structures in mitochondrial DNA replication [7,8]. Genome-wide mapping techniques were established to determine R-loop occurrence in human, mouse, and yeast cells, exposing that R-loops are highly abundant, with 5% of mammalian genomic sequences and 8% of the budding yeast sequences forming R-loops [9,10]. Potential regulatory functions of these structures are implied, as R-loop sequences are frequently recognized at GC-rich regions such as many promoters and 3end regions, where they appear to play significant functions in transcription [9,11C13]. R-loops can now be effectively mapped with high-throughput methods that are based on the specific acknowledgement of RNA-DNA hybrids by the S9.6 antibody [14,15]. The antibody was recently used to detect and localize DNARNA hybrids that BI-409306 have been linked to genomic instability, at CpG island promoters, terminator regions and genomic regions with altered chromatin structure [16C19] [9,20]. The monoclonal antibody S9.6 was originally generated in mice using an synthesized X174 DNARNA antigen and shown to exhibit high specificity and affinity for DNARNA hybrids . The antibody was initially used in assays to detect and quantify specific RNA-DNA hybrids [21C23] and for genome wide array based hybridization mapping techniques [24,25]. The specific acknowledgement of miRNA-DNA hybrids with a length of 22nt was also used to develop sensitive biosensor systems [26,27]. Because of the widespread use of the S9.6 antibodies in research and the importance to interpret the specific binding events, a recent study sought to further characterize the binding affinities and specificity of the single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of S9.6 . Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) experiments revealed a high binding affinity of 0.6 nM for DNA-RNA hybrids and in addition an about 5 occasions lower and still high binding affinity for RNA-RNA hybrids. The smallest epitope recognized by the antibody was shown to consist of 6 base pairs . In contrast, genome wide hybridisation mapping techniques suggest a minimal binding length of about 15 bp, which exhibits half of the binding affinity when compared to 60 bp long RNA-DNA hybrids . Since RNA-RNA BI-409306 duplexes form an A-helix structure that deviates from your RNA-DNA duplex structure , we suggest that the S9.6 antibody does not recognize the R-loop structure independent of R-loop sequence. BI-409306 To test this hypothesis, we used microscale thermophoresis (MST) and electromobility shift assays (EMSA) as in solution methods, in contrast to SPR, to determine binding affinities. Indeed, our results do suggest that the binding Rabbit polyclonal to ACAP3 affinity of the S9.6 antibody varies with BI-409306 R-loop sequences, independent of the GC-content, exposing many sequence variants with no, or low binding affinities. Materials and methods Synthesis of nucleic acid hybrids DNA and RNA oligonuclotides were synthesized by Sigma-Aldrich (Germany) and hybrid RNA-DNA oligonucleotides were synthesized by Integrated DNA Technologies (Coralville, IA, USA). All hybrids were synthesized with 5 Cy3, Cy5 or FAM fluorescence labels. To prepare RNA-DNA hybrids, the oligonucleotides were mixed in equimolar ratios in Annealing Buffer (80 mM NaCl; 10 mMTris, pH 7.6, BI-409306 1.5 mM MgCl2) heated to 95C for 3 minutes and then slowly cooled down (10 min) to room temperature. Oligonucleotides were used in microscale thermophoresis (MST) and electromobility shift.