Oncolytic viruses are tumor specific and have the advantage of triggering anti-tumor immune responses in the tumor microenvironment, so the combination of oncolytic viruses and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors may be a useful strategy for long term cancer treatment (102C104). Due to the reactivation of the immune system and the prolonged response once immunotherapy works, clinicians are interested in response effectiveness metrics (ORR, TTR, and DOR) other than overall survival (OS, time from initiation of the treatment to death from any cause) and progression-free survival (PFS, time from initiation of the treatment to disease progression or death from any cause, whichever occurred 1st). (I) (17.75% [95%CI: 14.47C21.03]) or immunotherapy combined with immunotherapy (I+O) (12.25% [95%CI: 1.56C22.94]), while We+C (8.09?m [95%CI: 6.86C9.32]) appeared to reduce the DOR compared to I (12.39?m [95%CI: 7.60C17.18]). PD-1 inhibitors were associated with better ORR (21.65% vs. 17.60%) and DOR (11.26?m vs. 10.03?m) compared to PD-L1 inhibitors. There were no significant variations in TTR under different situations. Conclusions PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors were promising immunotherapeutic providers to achieve adequate response efficacies with different malignancy types, treatment lines, Dienogest drug combinations, and restorative regimens. This comprehensive summary of the response effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors serves as a research for clinicians to make evidence-based decisions. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, meta-analysis, response effectiveness, objective response rate, time to response, duration of response Intro Cancer continues to be probably one of the most threatening diseases to human being health and a leading cause of mortality worldwide (1). Some cancers are refractory to chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Blocking the immune checkpoint of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) or programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) receptor have led to great improvements in disease results, and PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have emerged as frontline treatments for various cancers such as non-small cell lung malignancy, metastatic melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. PD-1 is definitely a negative regulator with increased manifestation on reactive anti-tumor T cells, and its ligand PD-L1 is mainly indicated on the surface of tumor cells; the binding of PD-1 and PD-L1 can turn off the anti-tumor effect of T cells. Therefore, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors can reduce immune suppression of anti-tumor T cells, which results in T cell proliferation, infiltration into the tumor microenvironment, and the induction of an anti-tumor response (2, 3). Unlike traditional anti-tumor treatments, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have been reported to have a long-lasting anti-tumor response with reactivation of the immune system. While PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors have shown promise in advanced malignancy immunotherapy, only a subset of individuals can respond to this therapy, and the majority do not benefit. Thus, it is critical to understand the response effectiveness of these medicines under various medical situations. Currently, two PD-1 inhibitors (nivolumab and pembrolizumab) and three PD-L1 inhibitors (atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab) have been authorized for the first-line or subsequent therapy of various cancer types. Hundreds of medical tests of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have reported response effectiveness, including objective response rate (ORR: the proportion of patients going through total response or partial response per RECIST v1.1 at any time during the study), time to response (TTR: the time from initiation of the treatment to the day of 1st documented complete or partial KSHV ORF26 antibody response), and period of response (DOR: the time from 1st documented complete or partial response to disease progression or death). However, the reported response efficacies experienced substantial variations due to Dienogest distinct medical situations, such as different malignancy types, medicines, treatment lines, and management practices among studies. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis to comprehensively compare the response effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in individuals with a variety of malignancy types, restorative regimens, treatment lines, and management strategies among published medical trials. Materials and Methods Search Methods and Study Selection We recognized published Dienogest medical tests of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors that reported the response effectiveness (ORR, TTR, and DOR) of advanced tumors from PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register, and Web of Technology using their inceptions to February 10, 2020. The abstracts from major conference proceedings of the World Conference on Lung Malignancy (WCLC), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the American Association for Malignancy Research (AACR), and the Western Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) were also reviewed, with the search terms PD-1, PD-L1, PD-1 inhibitor, PD-L1 inhibitor, nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, avelumab, and durvalumab. We evaluated all search results according to the Desired Reporting Items for Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement (4). Studies eligible for inclusion met all the following criteria: (1) Clinical tests for advanced malignancy therapy; (2) Individuals were treated having a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor; (3) Studies that reported at least one end result of interest (ORR, TTR, or DOR); (4) Studies that were restricted to the English language. Letters, case reports, review articles,.